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  Pectus excavatum signs and symptoms the hallmark of the condition is a sunken appearance of the sternum. The heart can be displaced and/or rotated. Mitral valve prolapse may also be present. Base lung capacity is decreased. viagra how long last the effect Causes researchers are currently unsure as to the actual cause of pectus excavatum but hypothesize genetic defect. Approximately 37% of individuals with pectus excavatum have a first degree family member with the condition. Physiologically, increased pressure in utero, rickets and increased traction on the sternum due to abnormalities of the diaphragm have been postulated as specific mechanisms. Pectus excavatum is also a relatively common symptom of marfan syndrome. Many children with spinal muscular atrophy develop pectus excavatum due to the diaphragmatic breathing that is common with the disease. buy viagra online Pathophysiology because the heart is located behind the sternum, and because individuals with pectus excavatum have been shown to have visible deformities of the heart (seen both on radiological imaging and after autopsies), it has been hypothesized that there is impairment of function of the cardiovascular system in individuals with pectus excavatum. While some studies have demonstrated decreased cardiovascular function in pectus excavatum, there has been no consensus reached based on newer physiological tests (such as echocardiography) of the presence or degree of impairment in cardiovascular function in people with pectus excavatum. Similarly, there is no consensus on the degree of functional improvement after corrective surgery. Diagnosis cross sectional scan of a chest with pectus excavatum pectus excavatum is initially suspected from visual examination of the anterior chest. Auscultation of the chest can reveal displaced heart beat and valve prolapse. do girls use viagra There can be a heart murmur occurring during systole caused by proximity between the sternum and the pulmonary artery, , lung sounds are usually clear yet diminished due to decreased base lung capacity. buy cheap viagra online uk Many scales have been developed to determine the degree of deformity in the chest wall. Most of these are variants on the distance between the sternum and the spine. do girls use viagra One such index is the backer ratio which grades severity of deformity based on the ratio between the diameter of the vertebral body nearest to xiphosternal junction and the distance between the xiphosternal junction and the nearest vertebral body. viagra canada online More recently the haller index has been used based on ct scan measurements. An index over 3. http://sweet-vibrations.com/tkj-generic-viagra-online-canada-cost-bk/ 25 is often defined as severe. do girls use viagra The haller index is the ratio between the horizontal distance of the inside of the ribcage and the shortest distance between the vertebrae and sternum. viagra without a doctor prescription Chest x-rays are also useful in the diagnosis. The chest x-ray in pectus excavatum can show an opacity in the right lung area that can be mistaken for an infiltrate (such as that seen with pneumonia). bon jovi like viagra women Some studies also suggest that the haller index can be calculated based on ch. viagra canada



























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